Kiwanis trip to D.C.: ‘Letter from Pittsburgh’

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton used his daily “Editor’s Letter” newspaper column to chronicle the weeklong trip to Washington, D.C., that the Pekin Kiwanis Club and a party of Peoria teachers took in June 1932. The third of his daily log entries, a letter written from the train in Pittsburgh, Pa., arrived too late to appear in the June 15, 1932 Pekin Daily Times, so it was printed on page 4 of the June 16 issue. This log entry, which concludes with a 1930s version of snapping a picture of one’s meal and sharing it on social media, follows below:

*****

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton in 1979. PHOTO FROM LOCAL HISTORY ROOM COLLECTION

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton in 1979. PHOTO FROM LOCAL HISTORY ROOM COLLECTION

Pittsburgh, Pa.,
June 14, 1932

This letter is being written from Pittsburgh. Don’t get it confused with the messages which are wired.

It is the morning after the first night on the train.

Some of them, I think, didn’t sleep so well.

You see, at Chicago they hooked on two more coaches – one loaded with Peoria teachers and the other empty. We had that empty spotted and got first choice of the center seats in it.

Across from John T. and me slept Karl King and Paul Hannig. And across from Joe and Dean slept Maurice Moss and Milton Taylor. Maurice is the lad who won his trip by getting the most new subscribers to the Times. I think he deserves a prize as the best sleeper, too. He slept eight hours, with only a five-minute interruption at Akron.

By fixing the seats as I had described, we had good beds in which we could sleep full length. Our gang got the first pillows that the porter came thru with, so we were fixed.

I should have explained that the Pekin cars are on the tail end of this train. Then TWO diners. Then our coach and the Peoria teachers ahead. Some of the more alert of the teachers, as they came thru to dinner, discovered “our gang” with a coach to itself, so they promptly moved in.

They had a different technique. They hadn’t brought all their glamorous new pajamas just for girls to see. They promptly donned their new silk sleeping duds, asked us to show them how to fix their beds, and they added much color to our car – so much, in fact that when news of our harem got back “beyond the diners” we had quite a few callers. I won’t mention [microfilm damaged] Paul Schermer’s wife wouldn’t let him come up.

Being discoverers and homesteaders of our coach we sort of assumed authority. At 8:30 we set our watches ahead to 9:30. I got unanimous consent for lights out, and after a couple girls in the front end had had a smoke we bedded down for the night.

Most of us wakened at Youngstown, and before we were far into Pennsylvania, the entire car was arousing. Ablutions begin at 3:30 Pekin time. It doesn’t take boys long to wash the front of their faces, but it takes a woman forever, so we loaned them our wash room too.

Knowing the mob would be up early, the dining car crew prepared at daybreak. The first call for breakfast came at 4:30 Pekin time. The tables were immediately filled by Tazewell county folk from B. D. (back of the diners). That makes me think maybe they didn’t sleep so well back there.

But I don’t blame them for crowding toward the diner. Read what we had for dinner last night:

Fruit cocktail, celery, assorted olives, soup, puree of green peas, rye croutons, consommé, hot or jellied, broiled fresh fish, parsley sauce, roast whole boned squab, chicken Parisienne, browned potatoes, string beans, Dixie salad dressing (lettuce, tomatoes, golden bantam corn, green peppers), rolls, muffins, berry roll, wine sauce, fruit meringue with whipped cream, cheese and crackers, coffee, hot or iced, Kaffee Hag, Instant Postum, Tea, hot or iced, milk, buttermilk.

#dean-mcnaughton, #f-f-mcnaughton, #john-t-mcnaughton, #karl-king, #kiwanis-trip-to-washington, #maurice-moss, #milton-taylor, #paul-hannig, #paul-schermer, #pekin-kiwanis-club

The Third Degree: Chapter 21: An armful of petitions for impeachment

With this post to our Local History Room weblog, we continue our series on a pair of sensational deaths that occurred in Pekin, Illinois, during the Prohibition Era. The Local History Room columns in this series, entitled “The Third Degree,” originally ran in the Saturday Pekin Daily Times from Sept. 15, 2012, to March 2, 2013.

THE THIRD DEGREE

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Chapter Twenty-one

An armful of petitions for impeachment

The manslaughter trial of Tazewell County Sheriff’s Deputies Ernest Fleming and Charles Skinner ended on March 4, 1933, with their acquittal on all charges that they had caused the death of jail inmate Martin Virant. But the controversy surrounding Virant’s shocking death was far from over.

There was, naturally, a lull in news coverage after the jury’s verdict, as the Virant story was immediately pushed off the front page by the death of Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak and the inauguration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Struck by an assassin’s bullet thought to have been aimed at FDR on Feb. 15, Mayor Cermak finally succumbed on March 6.

But before the month was over, the Virant story was back on the front page.

Despite the jury’s verdict, probably the majority of Tazewell County’s residents understandably remained convinced that Virant had died as a result of being tortured by sheriff’s deputies. Their desire for justice remained unsatisfied.

In prior decades, the death of a man as a result of harsh or violent interrogation methods may not have elicited much disapprobation, but by the 1930s attitudes about police brutality were changing.

Pekin Daily Times publisher and editor F.F. McNaughton probably spoke for many in his editorial on the front page of the Sept. 6, 1932 edition, entitled, “THE THIRD DEGREE.” McNaughton took what perhaps most people would have seen as a moderate position on police torture, opining, “Too little third degree is weakness; but too much is outrageous.”

He began by noting that, “Use of the ‘third degree is not confined to Pekin. In the days when my job was to cover police headquarters in New York city I used to cringe as I heard the screams of men being tortured as police sought to wring confessions from them. And I may as well confess to you right now that often I didn’t care how much they were tortured.”

McNaughton defended the use of torture by police as a necessary means of dealing with known, hardened criminals. “Criminals have no qualms in the methods they use,” he wrote. “So you can’t get anywhere by using the methods of a primary teacher on them.

“But,” he continued, “dealing with a known desperate criminal is one thing. Dealing with just you or me is another. . . .

“To slap a man may be all right; or to frighten him; or to keep him awake for hours and days till he becomes too tired to tell anything but the truth is good third degree work, particularly if mixed with clever trapping questioning.

“But if there has been ‘stepping on my neck, kicking me from one side to the other, breaking my ribs,’ and the like as the now mute lips of this dead man testified under oath, the thing has been overdone and the people of Tazewell county who hire and pay the officials demand that a stop be put to it.

“Because a man is foreign born is no reason to treat him as ‘just a damn foreigner.’ . . . They are all human beings and life is dear to them.”

But many people regarded any use of “the third degree” as a grievous violation of an individual’s God-given human rights. To cite one example, in the same week that the Tazewell County grand jury considered the case of Martin Virant’s death, the 109th annual Illinois conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church was under way in Springfield.

During the conference, a resolutions committee report was adopted condemning the employment of “third degree” methods to force confessions from accused prisoners. In his denunciation of police torture, the Rev. J. Williams of Bartonville specifically cited and discussed Virant’s death.

Soon after, at the annual convention of the Tazewell County Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, held at Deer Creek on Sept. 28, 1932, a resolution was passed saying the name of Tazewell County had been put to shame, and condemning “any cruel, brutal, or inhuman treatment in methods being used by its county officers, or its law enforcing body, in third degree methods, to obtain confession or information from suspected offenders, or criminals.” The women sent a copy of their resolution to Sheriff Crosby.

Evidently the sentiment aroused among central Illinois residents by Virant’s death was very strong. Consequently, when Fleming and Skinner were acquitted, some of the outraged citizens in Tazewell County began to look for alternative civil means to obtain the justice that had been denied.

So it was that on March 20, 1933 – just 15 days after the end of the trial of Fleming and Skinner – a group of Tazewell County citizens delivered petitions and a heavy stack of signatures to the Tazewell County Board, calling for the impeachment and removal of Sheriff James J. Crosby and of his entire force.

“To the honorable board of supervisors of Tazewell County,” the petition said, “We the voters of Tazewell county being desirous of clean, just government and safety for inmates of our county jail, do hereby declare the present sheriff’s force, namely Crosby, Fleming, Skinner, Garber and Lee a menace to good government and unfit to serve our county.

“We therefore petition the supervisors of our county to meet in special session and impeach said force and appoint a successor until such time as the office is filled by election.”

Next week: The county board responds.

After the March 5, 1933 acquittal of the sheriff's deputies accused in the jail beating death of Martin Virant, the Virant case disappeared from the news for a while. But on March 20, 1933, the case was back on the Pekin Daily Times front page, with the news that a group of Tazewell County citizens had delivered petitions and a heavy stack of signatures to the Tazewell County Board, calling for the impeachment and removal of Sheriff James J. Crosby and his entire force.

After the March 5, 1933 acquittal of the sheriff’s deputies accused in the jail beating death of Martin Virant, the Virant case disappeared from the news for a while. But on March 20, 1933, the case was back on the Pekin Daily Times front page, with the news that a group of Tazewell County citizens had delivered petitions and a heavy stack of signatures to the Tazewell County Board, calling for the impeachment and removal of Sheriff James J. Crosby and his entire force.

#anton-cermak, #charles-skinner, #ernest-fleming, #f-f-mcnaughton, #frank-lee, #franklin-delano-roosevelt, #hardy-garber, #martin-virant, #rev-j-williams, #sheriff-james-j-crosby, #tazewell-county-womans-christian-temperance-union, #the-third-degree

Presidents in Pekin on display

The Local History Room at the Pekin Public Library currently features a display of articles and mementos pertaining to the Pekin connections of U.S. Presidents. As is well known here in Pekin, prior to his election as President, Abraham Lincoln frequently visited Pekin and Tremont while working as an attorney in central Illinois from the 1830s to the 1850s. Much later, President Herbert Hoover made a quick whistle stop in Pekin during his re-election campaign on Nov. 4, 1932. President Dwight D. Eisenhower also made a campaign whistle stop in Pekin on Oct. 2, 1952. Then in June 1973, President Richard Nixon came to Pekin to dedicate the Dirksen Congressional Center here at the Pekin Public Library. Two years later, in August 1975, President Gerald Ford returned to dedicate the new library building. Pekin was next visited by Vice President George H. W. Bush in Sept. 1988 during his successful election campaign that year. During his U.S. senatorial campaign in 2004, Barack Obama made a campaign stop in Pekin, and later, during his 2005-2008 term in the U.S. Senate, President Obama visited the Aventine Renewal Energy plant in Pekin on March 14, 2005, also meeting constituents at the Pekin Public Library as senator. He later visited East Peoria as president (but not Pekin). Similarly, John F. Kennedy campaigned in East Peoria before his election, and George W. Bush visited East Peoria as president, but neither of them visited Pekin. (President Theodore Roosevelt also once went hunting in the Spring Lake area of Tazewell County.)

The Local History Room display, which will be exhibited through Lincoln’s Birthday next month, includes mementos of Lincoln, Hoover, Nixon, Ford, and Bush.

presidentsinpekin-nixon

presidentsinpekin-lincoln-hoover

presidentsinpekin-ford-bush

presidentsinpekin

Photographs by Emily Lambe, library staff

#abraham-lincoln, #barack-obama, #dwight-eisenhower, #george-h-w-bush, #gerald-ford, #herbert-hoover, #presidents-in-pekin, #richard-nixon, #theodore-roosevelt

Kiwanis trip to D.C.: ‘Eastward Bound’

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton used his daily “Editor’s Letter” newspaper column to chronicle the weeklong trip to Washington, D.C., that the Pekin Kiwanis Club and a party of Peoria teachers took in June 1932. The second of his daily log entries, headlined “EASTWARD BOUND” was published on the front page of the June 14, 1932 Pekin Daily Times, as follows:

*****

Washington, D.C., June 14
Pekin Daily Times,
Pekin, Ill.

Arrived here 2 p. m. Several are groggy from insomnia. Fifty are off their feet from car sickness [on] account [of a] rough mountain climb. All felt better when they set foot on solid ground again.

McNaughton.

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton in 1979. PHOTO FROM LOCAL HISTORY ROOM COLLECTION

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton in 1979. PHOTO FROM LOCAL HISTORY ROOM COLLECTION

This part of this letter is being sent back from Chicago; written on the Alton while the crowd looks over my shoulder.

We’ve already had our first calamity. Minnie Wilson lost the heel off her shoe. Art Kriegsman was appointed a committee to shoe her, but Art insists that she go barefoot.

You’ve got to hand it to her and Fearn, the Kiwanis president, for courage. They have their three smallest children along – the youngest aged 2. He’s a good trouper.

There, Albert Brennemann of Hopedale just came by and gave me a dandy apple. A bit ago the Jansen sisters (all four are along) treated me to taffy and chocolates.

We certainly have a dandy crowd – about 200 of us including the Peoria car we picked up in Chicago.

Everybody seems to be out for a grand time and even Ed. F. Lampitt Sr., and Al Zinger, who have seen a lot of the world, are wreathed in smiles.

I just asked the boys what to tell you, and they said to tell the gang that there wasn’t going to be any orange peel and apple core throwing on this trip. We’ll have that again next year en route to Chicago to the World’s fare (sic).

The big event that is being looked forward to as this is written is the first call to the dining car when we leave Chicago on the B. and O. tonight. What I’m hoping is that they have food enough.

I’ll try to wire you a lead for this letter from West Virginia tomorrow. Meanwhile I’ve had Bill Janssen help me get the list of names of all on the train (not including the Peoria crowd). Here they are – all agreeable folk:

Albert Brenneman, Margaret Braden, Pauline Braden, Helen Hofferbert, Kathryn Stout, Martha Schurman, Paul Hannig, Mary DeWeese, Beatrice Morrell, Bertha Williams, Helen Smith, Margaret Woelfle, Carl Woelfle, Mrs. Carl Woelfle, Mrs. W. O. Eberhart, Mary Eberhart, Karl K. King, Florence Francke, Frances Towle, Helen Aydelotte, Dorothy York, Mrs. Emma Arends, Mrs. Carry Zuckweller, Charles Alexander, Emma Melxure, Vera Herman, Miss E. Papenhause, Grace Brown, Mrs. R. Nedderman, Mrs. Fred Ferguson, Mrs. V. G. Gore, Mrs. Lena Birkey, Thelma Birkey, Paul Schermer, Mrs. Paul Schermer, Marie Skarnikat, Maurice Moss, Emma Neuhouse, Rhoda Hyatt, Mrs. William Koch, Anna Blenkiron, Milton Denekas, Willis Denekas, Irene Brown, Fred Rolf, Lenora Wilson, Karl Wilson, Henrietta Wilson, Fearn Wilson, Minnie Wilson, William Dean McNaughton, John F. McNaughton, Joe McNaughton, F. F. McNaughton, Marie Deppert, George Brines, Fern H. Smith, Robert Connibar, Mrs. R. A. Cullinan, Duane Cullinan, Dorothy Cullinan, Urban Albertsen, Orville Isenburg, Mrs. E. S. Loy, Mrs. Mae Gardiner, Jane Corbitt, Josephine Thaller, Hester Holland, Elizabeth Hunt, Theresa Jansen, Anna Jansen, Lena Jansen, Adelaide Jansen, Clara Albertsen, Elsie Albertsen, Mrs. Jerry Hurlburt, Emma Luick, Martha Lowry, Mrs. Frederick Reuling, Gertrude Ehrlicher, Freida Nedderman, Anna Gehre, Marie Schreiber, Martha Schreiber, Mary Struker, Edgar Jaeger, Elmer Kunkel, Don Kunkel, Mrs. Leslie Evler, Juanita Cook, Wilma Cook, Dolly Rupp, Dorothy Hieser, Arthur T. Kriegsman, E. F. Lampitt, A. B. Zinger, Marie Kohlbacher, Lila Greeley, Milton Taylor, Mrs. William Krieger, Ray Sloter, Freda Hild, Thelma Woll, Lucille Kaufman, Genevieve Talbott, Martha Tammens, Carl Bottin, Mrs. Carl Bottin, Eva Bottin, Albert Bottin, Hazel I. Eller, Lucy Alice Trowbridge, Sarah DePeu, Robert Schwartz, Richard Schwartz, Jennie Newman, Mrs. Fannie Spaits Marion (sic), Mrs. Jessie M. Spaits, Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Lee, Mrs. Ellen E. Graham, Mrs. Lewis Doren, Miss Margaret Everly, Ruth Pendergast, Luella Rollins, Lillian Skinner, Charlotte Vogelsang, Mrs. Anna Vogelsang, Bernice Hagerman, Ethel M. Brecher, Alice James, Blanche Moehring, Elizabeth Pugh, Mrs. R. L. Lohmar, Rolland Lohmar, Oline Eller, Mary Dean, Elizabeth Strunk, Winifred Robinson, Mabel Miller, Wilbur Karsten, Bill Janssen, Mary Stalin, Laura Schwartz, Frances Watson, Louise Harte, Joseph Wetzig, Gilbert Rapp, Mildred Brigham, Lucille Weesmiller, Virginia Sanborn, Loraine Aper, Jeannette Deppert, Mary Hofferbert, Pearl Sorenson, Miss Lilly Jansen, Minnie Schurman, Louis Zuckweller, Irene Francke, Mrs. J. E. Barnes, and Gladys Hieser.

The group photograph, a recent donation from Morton's to Pekin's public library, shows the members of the Pekin Kiwanis Club and the Peoria teachers party who toured Washington, D.C., in June 1932. The trip was chronicled day-by-day on the front page of the Pekin Daily Times by the newspaper's owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton.

The group photograph, a recent donation from Morton’s to Pekin’s public library, shows the members of the Pekin Kiwanis Club and the Peoria teachers party who toured Washington, D.C., in June 1932. The trip was chronicled day-by-day on the front page of the Pekin Daily Times by the newspaper’s owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton.

#art-kriegsman, #f-f-mcnaughton, #kiwanis-trip-to-washington, #pekin-kiwanis-club

The Third Degree: Chapter 20: ‘We, the jury, find the defendants . . .’

With this post to our Local History Room weblog, we continue our series on a pair of sensational deaths that occurred in Pekin, Illinois, during the Prohibition Era. The Local History Room columns in this series, entitled “The Third Degree,” originally ran in the Saturday Pekin Daily Times from Sept. 15, 2012, to March 2, 2013.

THE THIRD DEGREE

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Chapter Twenty

‘We, the jury, find the defendants . . .’

On Thursday, March 2, 1932, the defense rested its case in the manslaughter trial of Tazewell County Sheriff’s Deputies Charles Skinner and Ernest Fleming, who were accused of the death of jail inmate Martin Virant.

As the defense lawyers concluded the efforts to exonerate Fleming and Skinner, they delivered a compelling attack on the credibility of the state’s star witness Elizabeth Spearman, whose testimony implicated Skinner and Fleming in the severe injuries Virant had suffered.

In the end, the defense attorneys moved to have the whole of Spearman’s testimony quashed and stricken from the record.

Though Spearman, as an accused criminal and jail inmate, probably had just as great a problem with her credibility and accuracy as most of the defense’s jail inmate witnesses, nevertheless, Menard County Judge Guy Williams granted the defense’s motion.

In closing arguments lasting the entire morning of March 3 – arguments the Pekin Daily Times described as a “powerful oration” – defense attorney Jesse Black, reveling once more in the courtroom drama at which he excelled, denounced and ridiculed the state’s case.

“At times the attorney could be heard a block away as he shouted his denunciation of an attempt to deprive men of their liberty and ‘put them behind grey walls’ without any proof whatsoever,” the Daily Times reported.

In contrast, Tazewell County State’s Attorney Nathan T. Elliff delivered his closing arguments in a calm and quiet demeanor. “As to doubts about this case, I have just two doubts in my mind. One of these is whether this is a murder or a manslaughter. The other doubt in my mind is whether or not we’ve got all the defendants that are guilty,” Elliff said.

After closing arguments, Judge Williams gave instructions to the jury, reminding them to disregard Spearman’s testimony. The case went to the jury at 3:30 p.m. on March 3.

The jurors came back with a verdict at 2:20 p.m. Saturday, March 4, 1933.

JAIL DEATH JURY SAYS ‘NOT GUILTY,’” ran the Pekin Daily Times headline that day.

Both deputies were found not guilty of all charges. It was a stunning victory for Black and his fellow attorney William J. Reardon (though Reardon was called away from the trial at the very end due to the death of his brother in St. Louis on the night of March 2). Their decades of courtroom experience obviously had served them well.

And it was an embarrassing defeat for Elliff, whose youth and inexperience were frequently evident during the course of the trial.

“In Attorneys Reardon and Black, the defense has a pair of crafty barristers of long experience in court cunning. They know when to object and when to be silent,” wrote Pekin Daily Times reporter Mildred Beardsley in the Monday, Feb. 27, 1933 edition of the newspaper.

“They know when to shout in feigned anger and when to ‘Pooh! Pooh!’ in apparent disdain,” Beardsley continued. “These things, I suppose, are learned thru years of experience. More than once Judge Williams has told the youthful prosecutors that he would have sustained them if they had objected.”

In the final analysis, however, perhaps neither the inexperience of the prosecutors, nor the talent of the defense attorneys, nor the valiant attempts of the defense to explain away the convincing forensic evidence that Virant had been beaten and had not died of hanging, were that important in the exoneration of Fleming and Skinner.

The greatest challenge the prosecutors faced wasn’t proving that Virant had been beaten while in custody at the jail, nor that he had already died prior to being hanged – it was proving that Fleming and Skinner were connected to the crime.

Without Virant’s own testimony at the inquest of Lew Nelan, and without Spearman’s testimony, the jury had no evidence that Fleming and Skinner, or any other deputy, had done violence to Virant or faked his suicide. Proving that Virant was the victim of a crime was one thing. Proving that the crime had been committed by Fleming and Skinner was something else altogether.

And so the trial was over. Fleming and Skinner were free men.

Nevertheless, the tragedy of Virant’s death was nowhere near its final act.

Next week: Petitions for impeachment.

The front page of the March 4, 1933 Pekin Daily Times carried the banner headline, "JAIL DEATH JURY SAYS ‘NOT GUILTY'." Thus concluded the trial of the county deputies accused of the "third degree" torture death of Martin Virant. But the tragedy of Virant’s death was nowhere near its final act.

The front page of the March 4, 1933 Pekin Daily Times carried the banner headline, “JAIL DEATH JURY SAYS ‘NOT GUILTY’.” Thus concluded the trial of the county deputies accused of the “third degree” torture death of Martin Virant. But the tragedy of Virant’s death was nowhere near its final act.

#charles-skinner, #elizabeth-spearman, #ernest-fleming, #jesse-black, #judge-guy-williams, #lew-nelan, #martin-virant, #mildred-beardsley, #nathan-t-elliff, #the-third-degree, #william-reardon

Kiwanis trip to D.C.: ‘On Our Way’

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton used his daily “Editor’s Letter” newspaper column to chronicle the weeklong trip to Washington, D.C., that the Pekin Kiwanis Club and a party of Peoria teachers took in June 1932. Here is the first “log entry,” headlined “ON OUR WAY” and published on the front page of the June 13, 1932 Pekin Daily Times.

*****

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton in 1979. PHOTO FROM LOCAL HISTORY ROOM COLLECTION

Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton in 1979. PHOTO FROM LOCAL HISTORY ROOM COLLECTION

As this is being read by those of you who get your papers in the evening, I am trying to write you another letter on my knees.

I don’t mean that I am on my knees.

But the letter I am writing is on my knees.

We are on our way to Washington.

Some 200 of us left Tazewell county this noon over the Alton with a nice send-off from the Broadway depot of the Alton in Pekin.

We followed the circuitous route of the Alton to Bloomington and from there we rolled over the main line of the Alton to Chicago.

We are about due in Chicago as the average reader is picking up his paper this June Monday afternoon at 5 o’clock.

We might as well set our clocks ahead right now for Chicago goes on daylight saving time which is eastern standard time.

So we’ll be on time an hour ahead of yours the rest of the week.

That means that daylight will leave pretty early in the evening.

So this means the night’s sleep will not be overly long. Daylight will come at an hour earlier than usual, and into the day coach the light will pour at this midsummer dawn, wakening all of us.

I shall try to post a short note to you from Chicago tonight, then maybe wire you a few lines from the east for tomorrow.

By the way, a couple tips.

If you haven’t filed your claims at the Farmers National bank, better do so this evening, and be sure to do so by tomorrow.

Another tip. There is to be a tax on motor oil go on a week from today – 4c a gallon. But it is not on yet this week.

Well, we’ll be wiring you.

#alton-depot, #f-f-mcnaughton, #kiwanis-trip-to-washington, #pekin-kiwanis-club

How Pekin became a city

Here’s a chance to read again one of our old Local History Room columns, first published on 28 Jan. 2012 before the launch of this blog . . .

How Pekin became a city

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Pekin has been Tazewell County’s leading community and the continuous seat of county government about as long as Pekin has been a city. But our city had not a few birth pangs in its earliest days, and during Pekin’s first two decades or so the community’s future was often in doubt.

As stated in the Nov. 5, 2011, “From the History Room” column, the 1824 arrival of Jonathan Tharp three years before the formation of Tazewell County was the seed from which Pekin would grow. However, things got off to a slow start, and by 1830 only eight white families lived in the settlement that was given the name “Pekin” that year.

Pekin’s fortunes were then on the rise, however, and in the spring of 1831 the county’s officials made the “extra-legal” decision to move the county’s government operations from Mackinaw to Pekin — effectively moving the county seat, without, however, obtaining the authority to do so from the state. Four years later, Pekin was formally incorporated as a town and the community held its first election on July 9, 1835, to install “a board of five trustees of the Town of Pekin” to serve one-year terms. The vote results were: D. Mark, 24; D. Bailey, 24; Samuel Wilson, 17; Joshua C. Morgan, 22; S. Pillsbury, 24; and S. Field, 12. In the words of Pekin’s early historian W.H. Bates, “On the 11th of the same month, the Board of Trustees was organized, J.C. Morgan being elected President, and Benjamin Kellogg, Jr., Clerk.” (1870 Pekin City Directory, p.13)

Just one year later, however, Pekin suffered one of its many early setbacks, when the county seat was formally moved by the state’s instruction from Pekin to Tremont. Pekin’s Board President J.C. Morgan moved to Tremont at that time and resigned from the Pekin town board on June 27, 1836.

Undaunted by the loss of county seat status, Pekin carried on with its annual town elections and its population steadily increased. Calamity struck in late 1843, however, when a scarlet fever epidemic swept over the community, which then numbered about 800 residents.

It would be more than a decade before Pekin found itself on surer footing. As the 1974 Pekin Sesquicentennial says, “After years of misfortunes, epidemics, wars, droughts, and general weariness, Pekin seemed due for a change of luck. It came, and 1849 was the turning point. The population had risen to 1,500, and the town’s residents voted unanimously to organize under a city charter (dated August 20, 1849). On September 24, Bernard Bailey was elected mayor, heading a council of four aldermen: John Atkinson, David Kenyon, William Maus, and Jacob Riblet.”

Maus, incidentally, was one of the town’s doctors, and he had attended to the sick during the scarlet fever epidemic of 1843-1844. He had previously treated Pekin’s cholera victims during the July 1834 epidemic.

In the 1870 Pekin City Directory, W. H. Bates details the process of how Pekin became a city. To begin with, Bates says the county seat was moved from Tremont back to Pekin in 1848. Others say it was 1849, the same year Pekin incorporated as a city, and “1849” is handwritten — perhaps by Bates himself — on the page of the library’s copy of the 1870 City Directory.

Bates then relates that on Aug. 7, 1849, the town board approved a resolution to take a census of Pekin “preparatory to city organization under the general act of incorporation allowing towns of fifteen hundred inhabitants the privilege of adopting the Springfield or Quincy charters if a majority of the inhabitants, upon due notice, vote in favor of it.”

Only two days later, on Aug. 9, the census results were reported to the board, and, having found that Pekin contained 1,500 people, it was “ordered that two weeks’ notice, to be published in the ‘Mirror,’ for an election, to be held on the 20th of August, 1849, to vote for or against the City of Pekin.”

With the unanimous vote on Aug. 20, the “City of Pekin” was born, with a mayor/alderman form of government. Bates says elsewhere that Pekin was only the tenth incorporated city in the State of Illinois.

This page from the first published history of Pekin, printed in the 1870 Sellers & Bates Pekin City Directory, tells of how Pekin became an incorporated city of Illinois on Aug. 20, 1849. The handwritten marking may have been added by the history's author, W. H. Bates, or by a later local Pekin historian.

This page from the first published history of Pekin, printed in the 1870 Sellers & Bates Pekin City Directory, tells of how Pekin became an incorporated city of Illinois on Aug. 20, 1849. The handwritten marking may have been added by the history’s author, W. H. Bates, or by a later local Pekin historian.

#cholera, #j-c-morgan, #jonathan-tharp, #joshua-c-morgan, #pekin-history, #tazewell-county-history, #w-h-bates, #william-s-maus

The Third Degree: Chapter 19: The deputies’ defense team rests its case

With this post to our Local History Room weblog, we continue our series on a pair of sensational deaths that occurred in Pekin, Illinois, during the Prohibition Era. The Local History Room columns in this series, entitled “The Third Degree,” originally ran in the Saturday Pekin Daily Times from Sept. 15, 2012, to March 2, 2013.

THE THIRD DEGREE

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Chapter Nineteen

The deputies’ defense team rests its case

During the two weeks of the manslaughter trial of Tazewell County Sheriff’s deputies Ernest Fleming and Charles Skinner in late February and early March 1933, the prosecution and the defense presented the jury with their explanations of how Tazewell County jail inmate Martin Virant had ended up dead and hanging in his cell on Sept. 1, 1932.

The state contended that because Virant denied any involvement in the murder of Lewis Nelan, the deputies administered a so-called “third degree” interrogation of Virant, beating and torturing him to extract useful information or a confession. The prosecutors said Virant succumbed to his injuries, and the deputies, finding Virant dead, arranged the death scene to make it appear that he had committed suicide by hanging.

But the defense insinuated that Virant had in fact participated in Nelan’s murder, and, overcome by guilt, he hanged himself in his cell.

One of the witnesses for the defense, jail inmate Joe Hensley, even claimed to have heard Virant say, “Poor John, he did I did too.” Those words, according to the defense, amounted to a confession that he had helped John Petje murder Nelan.

To establish their alternate scenario, the defense had to explain the compelling evidence that Virant had been horrifically beaten and that he had already died prior to being hanged. To overcome that evidence, the defense called three medical experts, who cast doubt upon the death investigation and the findings of the state’s experts.

The defense’s experts offered no explanation for the testimony of former Tazewell County Coroner Dr. Arthur E. Allen, who said Virant’s body showed none of the usual signs of a hanging death. To deal with Dr. Allen’s testimony, the defense attorneys endeavored to impeach his credibility by insinuating that Allen was involved in a personal political vendetta against Fleming and Skinner.

Allen, a Republican, had recently lost his re-election bid to the Democrat’s candidate Dr. Nelson A. Wright Jr., and Fleming and Skinner had quietly encouraged people to vote for Wright. Fleming and Skinner, both Democrats, also had campaigned against Allen four years earlier. During cross-examination of Allen, defense attorney Jesse Black Jr. suggested that Allen harbored resentment against Fleming and Skinner.

In effect, Black insinuated that Allen had framed Fleming and Skinner, with the implication that Allen had lied about Virant’s body not showing the usual signs of a hanging death, and also had lied about easing Virant’s body to the floor when he had really, so Black and several defense witnesses claimed, allowed the body to crash to the floor.

Also called to testify at the trial was former Tazewell County State’s Attorney Louis P. Dunkelberg, who according to the defense’s scenario would have been Allen’s co-conspirator in the framing of Fleming and Skinner. The four deputies who testified for the defense claimed Dunkelberg had seen Virant briefly during part of the time he was interrogated by the deputies.

However, when the state called Dunkelberg to the stand and asked him to describe Virant’s appearance, the defense objected and Judge Williams upheld their objection, so Dunkelberg was not allowed to say if Virant had any injuries on him when he saw him.

Notably, one person central to the drama of Virant’s death was never called as a witness in this trial: Tazewell County Sheriff James J. Crosby. Neither the prosecution nor the defense summoned him to testify, because Crosby was still convalescing from the severe heart attack he’d suffered on Nov. 5, 1932.

As indicated in this excerpt from a March 2, 1933 Pekin Daily Times report, the credibility of the prosecution's key witness Elizabeth Spearman of Peoria was thrown into doubt by the defense in the manslaughter trial of Tazewell County Sheriff's deputies Ernest Fleming and Charles Skinner, who were accused of causing the death of Tazewell County Jail inmate Martin Virant.

As indicated in this excerpt from a March 2, 1933 Pekin Daily Times report, the credibility of the prosecution’s key witness Elizabeth Spearman of Peoria was thrown into doubt by the defense in the manslaughter trial of Tazewell County Sheriff’s deputies Ernest Fleming and Charles Skinner, who were accused of causing the death of Tazewell County Jail inmate Martin Virant.

To put the finishing touches on its case, the defense called a series of character witnesses, who testified that Deputies Fleming and Skinner were men of character and virtue who would be very unlikely to commit acts of violence.

The defense also called another series of character witnesses to undermine the credibility of jail inmate Elizabeth Spearman, whose testimony for the prosecution had strongly implied that Fleming and Skinner had beaten Virant. The testimony of these character witnesses was very helpful to the defense – and the defense lawyers also made a great deal of Spearman’s error that Fleming and Skinner, rather than Skinner and Hardy Garber, had taken Virant to the Nelan inquest.

The defense’s attack on Spearman was so effective that in the end, when the defense rested on Thursday, March 2, 1933, the defense attorneys made a motion to have the whole of Spearman’s testimony quashed and stricken from the record.

Next week: ‘We, the jury, find the defendants . . .’

#charles-skinner, #coroner-arthur-e-allen, #elizabeth-spearman, #ernest-fleming, #jesse-black, #joe-hensley, #john-petje, #judge-guy-williams, #lew-nelan, #louis-dunkelberg, #martin-virant, #nelson-a-wright, #sheriff-james-j-crosby, #the-third-degree

Pekin’s Kiwanis Club rides the rails to D.C.

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Recently the Pekin Public Library’s Local History Room collection received an old photograph donated by the Morton Public Library.

The photo, taken June 15, 1932, pictures a large group of people on the steps of a building — in fact, the U.S. Capitol building. At the bottom of the image is a caption that was inscribed on the negative, describing the occasion as a tour of Washington, D.C., by the Kiwanis Club of Pekin and a party of Peoria teachers, who had traveled to the nation’s capital via the Baltimore and Ohio and Alton Railroads. Herbert Hoover was then the president of the United States and was seeking re-election, and the Great Depression was then in its third year.

The Pekin Kiwanis will mark their 96th anniversary this spring. Information about the Pekin Kiwanis Club that is on file in the Local History Room tells us that the Kiwanis Club was founded as a social club for tradesmen and merchants in Detroit, Mich., the first club being chartered in Detroit on Jan. 21, 1915, only two years before the U.S. entered World War I.

Pekin’s club was organized only five years later, on May 24, 1920, and its first president was Pekin attorney and Tazewell County judge Jesse Black Jr. At the time of the Kiwanis Club trip to Washington in 1932, the Pekin club president was Oscar Van Boening.

Two years prior to that, the club president was Pekin Daily Times owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton – and McNaughton himself went along on the D.C. trip, chronicling the experience day-by-day in his “Editor’s Letter” column on the Daily Times front page that week. In one of those columns, McNaughton appends a list of all of the Kiwanis Club members and the club members’ families who went on the trip. His tally may help to identify people in the group photo.

Keep your eye on this column space. Over the next few weeks, this column will reprint F. F. McNaughton’s daily log of the Washington, D.C., trip.

The group photograph, a recent donation from Morton's to Pekin's public library, shows the members of the Pekin Kiwanis Club and the Peoria teachers party who toured Washington, D.C., in June 1932. The trip was chronicled day-by-day on the front page of the Pekin Daily Times by the newspaper's owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton.

The group photograph, a recent donation from Morton’s to Pekin’s public library, shows the members of the Pekin Kiwanis Club and the Peoria teachers party who toured Washington, D.C., in June 1932. The trip was chronicled day-by-day on the front page of the Pekin Daily Times by the newspaper’s owner and publisher F. F. McNaughton.

#f-f-mcnaughton, #herbert-hoover, #jesse-black, #kiwanis-trip-to-washington, #oscar-van-boening, #pekin-kiwanis-club

The Third Degree: Chapter 18: The defense pleads its case

With this post to our Local History Room weblog, we continue our series on a pair of sensational deaths that occurred in Pekin, Illinois, during the Prohibition Era. The Local History Room columns in this series, entitled “The Third Degree,” originally ran in the Saturday Pekin Daily Times from Sept. 15, 2012, to March 2, 2013.

THE THIRD DEGREE

By Jared Olar
Library assistant

Chapter Eighteen

The defense pleads its case

At the end of a long succession of witnesses and physical evidence, the prosecution rested its case on Feb. 26, 1933, in the trial of Tazewell County Sheriff’s deputies Ernest Fleming and Charles Skinner, who were accused of causing the death of Tazewell County Jail inmate Martin Virant by severely beating him during a so-called “third degree” interrogation.

The following day, the defense attorneys Jesse Black Jr. and William J. Reardon began to call their own lengthy list of witnesses and experts, who would help the defense build its case that the deputies never did any violence to Virant, nor did they hang his dead body – rather, the defense contended, Virant had committed suicide. Heading the witness list was J. Hardy Garber, a deputy who helped Skinner bring Virant to and from the Lew Nelan murder inquest.

Garber and the three other deputies involved in this case – Fleming and Skinner, who both took the stand in their own defense, and Frank Lee, originally indicted by the Tazewell County grand jury but whose charges were dropped just before the trial began in Menard County – offered very important testimony.

Presenting a united front, they resolutely denied that anyone had done more than raise his voice at Virant while he was in the custody of the Tazewell County Sheriff’s Department. The four deputies agreed that there had been absolutely no beating or kicking or any kind of rough handling.

The four deputies did state, however, that they noticed Virant had some cuts and bruises about his head and neck when he was first brought to the jail. They denied knowing how Virant had gotten those injuries.

The deputies also agreed that Virant became very frightened and upset, and refused to let them take his fingerprints, after Lee brought in a package containing two metal pipes and unrolled it in Virant’s presence.

Skinner and Fleming also supplied a very important element of the defense’s alternate scenario of Virant’s injuries and death. Flatly contradicting former Coroner A. E. Allen’s testimony that he had eased Virant’s body to the cell floor when he cut his body down, Skinner and Fleming claimed Allen had irresponsibly and unprofessionally let Virant’s body crash to the floor. Virant’s body had even slammed against the toilet as it fell, the accused deputies insisted.

Relying on their medical experts, the defense argued that most of Virant’s bruises and injuries, including his broken rib, were caused when Allen cut his body down and let it crash to the floor. Also backing up this claim were three jail inmates, Charles Cameron, 62, formerly of Delavan, Joe Hensley, and Thomas Davis.

Cameron, a jail trustee, told the jurors, “I saw Allen cut the strap and saw Virant fall on the toilet bowl. He came down awful hard . . . He was dropped. Mr. Allen didn’t touch him. . . . It jarred the whole floor of the cell.” Cameron even claimed that Allen jumped out of the way so Virant’s body would hit the toilet as it fell.

Hensley, another jail trustee, corroborated some of Cameron’s testimony, claiming, “I heard the sound when he was cut down. It came down hard. . . . I heard a loud thump on the iron floor – loud enough to be heard outside of the jail.”

In cross-examination, however, Elliff showed that Cameron’s testimony differed significantly from what he had previously told the Tazewell County grand jury and disagreed with a statement he had made to former Tazewell County State’s Attorney Louis P. Dunkelberg on Sept. 9, 1932.

Cameron responded to Elliff’s questions by disavowing most of his prior statement, and in particular he denied speaking to fellow inmate Elizabeth Spearman. Cameron’s original statements had corroborated key elements of Spearman’s testimony, which supported the state’s case that Fleming and Skinner had beaten Virant.

Some of Hensley’s testimony was especially helpful to the defense’s contention that Virant had committed suicide. Hensley claimed that during Virant’s first night in the jail, Tuesday, Aug. 30, 1932, “I heard the bunk chains rattling and then like someone came off the bunk onto the floor. That was after 2 o’clock. Then I heard moaning and groaning. . . . I heard him saying, ‘Poor John, he did I did too.’”

The words Hensley claimed to have heard Virant say, according to the defense, amounted to a confession that he had helped John Petje murder Lew Nelan. A sense of guilt over his role in Nelan’s death was the reason he committed suicide, the defense attorneys claimed.

Davis also testified that he heard noises from Virant’s cell three times that night as of someone jumping off the bunk, including at 2 a.m. and 3 a.m. In addition, Davis claimed to have heard the same kind of noise sometime after 1 p.m. on Thursday, Sept. 1, and to have heard Virant making a noise.

The defense argued that the noises Hensley and Davis said they heard Tuesday night were not the groans of a man who had been severely beaten, but were the sounds of Virant attempting to hang himself using some strings and threads that investigators found in his cell after his death.

The defense attorneys suggested that some of Virant’s injuries may have been caused during this purported first suicide attempt, but they did not try to explain why Virant would have opted first for strings that were unlikely to support his own weight and only two days later decide to use his own belt.

The defense also claimed that Davis had heard the sounds of Virant killing himself on Thursday, Sept. 1.

Or were they the sounds of deputies faking Virant’s suicide?

Next week: The defense rests.

In the sensational case of the &quotthird degree" death of Tazewell County Jail inmate Martin Virant, prosecutors contended that Virant succumbed to severe injuries he'd suffered at the hands of Sheriff's deputies, who then staged a hanging even though he obviously had died before his body was hanged. But defense attorneys, relying on testimony such as that found in this detail from a March 1, 1933 Pekin Daily Times report, countered by insinuating that Virant helped John Petje murder Lew Nelan and then, wracked by guilt, hanged himself in his jail cell. The defense argued that Virant's severe injuries were inflicted by Tazewell County Coroner Arthur E. Allen, whom the defense claimed was incompetent and careless.

In the sensational case of the “third degree” death of Tazewell County Jail inmate Martin Virant, prosecutors contended that Virant succumbed to severe injuries he’d suffered at the hands of Sheriff’s deputies, who then staged a hanging even though he obviously had died before his body was hanged. But defense attorneys, relying on testimony such as that found in this detail from a March 1, 1933 Pekin Daily Times report, countered by insinuating that Virant helped John Petje murder Lew Nelan and then, wracked by guilt, hanged himself in his jail cell. The defense argued that Virant’s severe injuries were inflicted by Tazewell County Coroner Arthur E. Allen, whom the defense claimed was incompetent and careless.

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#charles-cameron, #charles-skinner, #coroner-arthur-e-allen, #elizabeth-spearman, #ernest-fleming, #frank-lee, #hardy-garber, #jesse-black, #joe-hensley, #lew-nelan, #louis-dunkelberg, #martin-virant, #nathan-t-elliff, #the-third-degree, #thomas-davis, #william-reardon